Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Quantum Physics

Nonetheless, it must be noticed that the European Debt Crisis is as yet going on in the vast majority of the European nations, and in this way, It may be increasingly ideal for Ping A to concentrate on the Salsa-Pacific market where a large portion of the business sectors are as yet rising and above all, hose markets have low connection with the effect of worldwide economy emergency because of lesser exchanging exercises with those nations influenced by the crisis.In request to enter effectively Into developing business sector and less created nations, for example, India, Vietnam and Africa, one needs to comprehend a few components identifying with the objective markets, for example, nearby social and standard practices, size and extent of potential chances, see needs and needs of buyers and see how the administrations are utilized In the market and by whom. Also, the system Ping A pick o seek after outside market openings as a rule relies upon various components including cost of el ective techniques, the measure of inalienable dangers included, government guidelines and neighborhood showcase conditions.While resource the executives had been delayed to take off in most created nations, protection areas are developing quickly In rising economies. Bolstered by great macroeconomic variables including populace development and rising salary levels, for example, the instance of India where the Indian protection industry rose as one of the quickest creating markets of he worldwide protection industry (Money Control 2011). A portion of the market section procedures that Ping A could utilize Include setting up entirely claimed auxiliaries In these developing market.This Is when 100% of the unacceptable regular stock Is possessed by Ping An. With such methodology, Ping A could acquaint its protection items with local people as per their requirements and needs. In addition, so as to contend with the remainder of the insurance agencies in India, Ping A would need to partic ipate in item Innovation in order to all the more likely match the hazard profile of strategy holders and making brews and promoting increasingly capable and responsible (Parker 2012). Ping A could likewise participate in less dangerous methodology, for example, banding together with the neighborhood insurance agencies or Joint ventures.A Joint endeavor Is a vital coalition where at least 2 gatherings, generally organizations, structure an association to share markets, Intellectual property, resources, information and benefits. Such methodology is esteemed to be less unsafe since the neighborhood association may give Ping An entrance to more noteworthy assets including, specific staff and innovation. In addition, nearby organizations would have more noteworthy comprehension of the neighborhood's needs and needs, permitting Ping A to alter protection items that suits the requirements of strategy holders.However, it must be noticed that the principle detriment of such procedure is tha t in most joint endeavors, targets are normally not 100% clear and spoken with everybody included, accordingly this could prompt undesirable question between parties (Allen 2011). To wrap things up, Ping A could likewise take part In remote direct Investment by buying the portions of another insurance agency in the developing business sector. For instance, India as of late has 1 OFF organizations (Chuddar and Kola 2014). Such opening of the part could be consider as an open door for Ping A to enter into the huge IIS$ 66. Billion Indian market (FIEF 2014). Be that as it may, unbending due steadiness must be done about the neighborhood insurance agencies earlier contributing to forestall any accidents or lackluster showing of the organization. All in all, Ping A could consider taking part in these market section systems that have been set before however there is a need to weigh both the favorable circumstances and drawbacks of executing these diverse technique in order to guarantee an effective worldwide extension of Ping A protection business.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Testing of life expectancy Would you want to know

Presentation Throughout the web, there are various sites professing to have virtual products where individuals after entering some close to home data, they are educated with exactness their future. The evident precision of these tests is prohibited and the vast majority of those individuals who take them infrequently accept what they are told.Advertising We will compose a custom exposition test on Testing of future: Would you need to know? explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is on the grounds that various programming projects produce differed results making it troublesome in any event, for the most passionate devotees of these fakes to swallow what they see. While the majority of the online tests are cheats with little believability, there could really be another approach to decide people’s future. Researchers in the UK might have the option to tell to what extent one will live through an exceptional blood test that will include investigation of a perso n’s hereditary make up. A large portion of the individuals who take an interest on the online tests will locate this fascinating on account of the degree of logical association and the expanded communication with those that are offering the test. The way that these researchers are good to go out the administration in the market shows that they are persuaded that it is trustworthy and that they are prepared to bear any lawful difficulties and are prepared to demonstrate experimentally that their technique works. The inquiry anyway is whether individuals will step through the exam or not. I would not have any desire to have the test Before an individual steps through this exam, various elements come to play. When deliberately dissected, the negative marks exceed the benefits that ought to debilitate any individual of sound psyche from stepping through the examination. Legitimacy of the test, the budgetary perspective, and the psychological readiness of such an endeavor will deb ilitate me from stepping through the exam. The explanations behind not stepping through the exam are handled underneath in detail. Legitimacy of the test and budgetary perspective The test tries to dissect a person’s status of telomeres, to decide the speed of maturing. The intelligence behind this is the shorter the telomeres, the quicker somebody will age.Advertising Looking for paper on maturing? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since mature age is for the most part connected with end of life, these researchers figure they can utilize insights like the predominant future of a person’s district to ascertain the quantity of years he/she will live. What they don't tell individuals is that this test will just test the organic age of an individual. While organic age may have some relationship with ordered age, it isn't in total a precise method to decide to what extent an individual will leave. To be reasonable, this test adopts a ceteris paribus strategy to ordered age. While it is feasible for one’s organic age to be over a hundred, sequential age is dependent upon numerous components like mishaps that can undoubtedly take a person’s life at any age. Except if they incorporate the component of different elements that cause demise and are outside human ability to control, its will be a negligible exercise in futility to step through the exam. All the above comes at a stunning figure of a likeness $700, a figure path past what a large number of those that will need to step through the examination. For what it's worth, there are as of now numerous tests that are accessible and that consider numerous components past natural age with to some degree precise consequences of future. All things considered, accepting the test is somewhat precise and one’s future is determined, its will be a wellspring of individual issues like passionate breakdowns that may demonstrate hard to deal with. Passionate breakdown Given that this test is supported by some logical demonstrate, a few people are probably going to take the outcomes completely. Individuals have for along time flourished in secret and obliviousness. The puzzle that encompasses demise and the absence of information on how it is caused and when it will happen has saved numerous individuals a great deal of misery. Information on a person’s date or evident date of death is probably going to dive a few people into a condition of passionate trouble that is achieved by disavowal, dread, and apprehension.Advertising We will compose a custom paper test on Testing of future: Would you need to know? explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is sheltered to accept that relatively few individuals can confront the assurance of death in their calm condition of psyches. This by itself is reason enough for one not to step through the examination in light of the fact that obviously the advantage s of knowing your date of death are less those of not knowing. Determination There will be a great deal of upsides and downsides about the future tests. The choice anyway lies with any person that is intrigued. Whatever it is, the main concern remains that this test will accomplish more damage than anything else. This paper on Testing of future: Would you need to know? was composed and put together by client Lee Perry to help you with your own examinations. You are allowed to utilize it for research and reference purposes so as to compose your own paper; be that as it may, you should refer to it appropriately. You can give your paper here.

Saturday, August 8, 2020

Book Riots Deals of the Day for March 12th, 2019

Book Riot’s Deals of the Day for March 12th, 2019 Sponsored by our Whats Up in YA Giveaway of a $100 gift card to Amazon! Enter here. These deals were active as of this writing, but may expire soon, so get them while they’re hot! Todays  Featured Deals Alif the Unseen: A Novel by G. Willow Wilson for $1.99.  Get it here, or just click on the cover image below. The River at Night by Erica Ferencik for $2.99.  Get it here, or just click on the cover image below. The Patriots: A Novel by Sana Krasikov for $1.99.  Get it here, or just click on the cover image below. In Case You Missed Yesterdays Most Popular Deals My Sister, the Serial Killer: A Novel by Oyinkan Braithwaite for $3.99.  Get it here, or just click on the cover image below. What Alice Forgot by Liane Moriarty for $1.99.  Get it here, or just click on the cover image below. Previous Daily Deals That Are Still Active As Of This Writing (Get em While Theyre hot!): When Breath Becomes Air by Paul Kalanithi for $1.99 The Ministry of Utmost Happiness  by  Arundhati Roy  for $2.99 Cabin At The End of the World by Paul Tremblay for $1.99 Six of Crows by Leigh Bardugo for $2.99. The Fifth Season by N. K. Jemisin for $2.99. See What I Have Done by Sarah Schmidt for $2.99. Sharp Objects by Gillian Flynn for $2.99. Batman: Nightwalker by Marie Lu for $1.99. This Is Where I Leave You: A Novel by Jonathan Tropper for $1.99. 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Saturday, May 23, 2020

Elizabeth Has A Population Of 129,007 People Living In

Elizabeth has a population of 129,007 people living in the city. It is the fourth largest community in New Jersey with twenty-six constituent neighborhoods. It is an extremely ethnically-diverse city with 64% of the population Hispanic, 17% Black, and 14% White. Elizabeth was once ranked number eleven in a list of dangerous cities in New Jersey (Uniform). While there are surveys and public polls on what cities in a state are the most dangerous, I did not want to rely on speculation and opinion. Instead, I looked at the hard numbers from the Federal Bureau Investigations (FBI) reports in the last five years. I more specifically analyzed the FBI’s Uniform Crime Report (UCR) which summarizes the number of property crimes and violent crimes†¦show more content†¦Young people learn right from wrong by following their guardian’s examples throughout their childhood, and if they are not taught right from wrong it may lead them to do some criminal doings. Places, where f amilies are crowded together are unpleasant for some young individuals, where they then find themselves getting in trouble more with the law. Sometimes their actions are simply a search for excitement, adventures and being able to fit in. There are some who break the law as an attempt to get even with the society for the kind of life they have to live in. Moreover, the main cause would be a means of supporting one’s self in the kind of society they live in. Many people who live in poor conditions sometimes have no other way of maintaining their homes so they resort to theft or other criminal activities. The only opinion that they have is to be able to survive the day to day hardship is to give one in a life of crime to support themselves. Unemployment plays a massive role in the cause of crime because the people feel if they are not able to work to sustain themselves they must steal in order to keep themselves and their families surviving. Therefore, living in poor home condi tions and the feeling for the need to survive is one of the main causes of crimes happening in Elizabeth. Another reason that encourages crime in Elizabeth is being a member of a gang. Many young people who get into trouble with the law are/or have some kind of relationship

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

How Psychological Research Has Helped in the Understanding...

How psychological research has helped in the understanding of criminal behaviour Bandura (1961) - Bobo doll experiment - Albert Bandura created the bobo doll experiment in 1961, the aim of this experiment was to show that if children where witnesses to aggressive displays by an adult of some sort they would imitate this behaviour when given an opportunity. The tested group contained 36 young girls and 36 young boys all aged between 4 and 5 years which was then divided into 3 groups of 24 – the aggressive condition, the non aggressive condition and the control group. The first group involved the children watching aggressive models, where the children where then subdivided by sex of the role model they were exposed to. The second group†¦show more content†¦This study has helped in the understanding of criminal behaviour as children learn through imitation and the environment which they grow up in have an effect on their behaviour. If a child has been brought up around abuse, criminal activity or consistent aggression then the child is most likely to offend by imitating their role model wh ich could be a parent, sibling or even just a role model which they look up to. Philip Zimbardo (1971) - Stanford prison experiment – Dr Philip Zimbardo created the Stanford prison experiment in 1971, the aim of this experiment was to find out the psychological effects of prison life, and to what extent can moral people be seduced to act immorally. The study consisted of 24 students selected out of 75, the roles of these 24 men were randomly assigned, 12 to play prison guards and 12 to play prisoners. The prison set up was built inside the Stanford’s psychological department, doors where taken of laboratory rooms and replaced with steel bars in order to create cells. At the end of the corridor was the small opening which became the solitary confinement for the ‘bad prisoners’. Throughout the prison there were no windows or clocks to judge the passage in time, which resulted in time distorting experiences. After only a few hours, the participants adapted to their roles well beyond expectations, the officers startingShow MoreRelatedCriminology Theories1039 Words   |  5 Pagesessay. It is said b y Sutherland (1939), that Criminology is made up by â€Å"three great tributaries: The study of crime, the study of those who commit crime and the study of the criminal justice and penal systems†. Criminologists study this topic in an attempt to gain a greater understanding on the motives behind criminal behaviour, so they can provide their own opinion on what they believe â€Å"Criminology† is, this can be shown through different theories that have been created. These opinions will be analysedRead MoreWhy do individuals commit crimes?1381 Words   |  6 Pagesfor centuries, researchers of all kinds have been persistent in analyzing criminals for an answer. The scholarly attention to crime from various perspectives has allowed for an extensive range of theories which are based on three broad theoretical approaches of explaining criminal behaviour. These theoretical approaches, which focus on the causes of crime and deviance in modern society, are the biological approa ch, psychological approach and the sociological approach. First, the Biological Theory believesRead MoreThe Nature And Nurture Debate : How The Four Areas Of Criminal Behavior?1605 Words   |  7 Pagesthe history of psychology, questions whether or not criminal behaviour is a result of the nature of a person, meaning something that lies in their genes causing a person to act in a certain way, or nurture, the environment, therefore criminal behaviour as a result of a person’s life experiences (Sincero, 2012). This essay shall look in depth and answer to how the four areas of criminal behaviour, which are biological, sociological, psychological and environmental, as part of the nature and nurtureRead MoreThe Behavioral Perspective And The Biological Perspective1306 Words   |  6 Pagesperspective and the biological perspective. According to J Walker (2012) the behavioural perspective is based on behaviourism and is the study of observing behaviour when in certain contexts and events. The biological perspective however, explains beh aviour by focusing on the function of the nervous system, genes and the brain. Behaviourists regard behaviour has a response and stimulus which is determined by the environment one lives in. With this reductionist idea, it is therefore easy for behaviourists toRead MoreWhat Is The Study Of The Psychological Abuse Of Criminals?899 Words   |  4 Pages For solutions, it is important to look at other studies of the psychological makeup of criminals and what types of treatment work best. Convicted offenders of violent and felony crimes have lower emotional intelligence compared to control groups, so it is hypothesized that emotional intelligence enhancement programs in prison may help inmates understand and control their own emotions and how to react to other people’s emotions (Sharma et al). The studies used by Sharma et al were paper and pencilRead MoreUnderstanding Epr Use Within English Mental Health Trusts ( Mhts )1446 Words   |  6 PagesABSTRACT Background: NHS services delivering psychological treatments to clients requires volumes of patient data to be collected. Patient history information, as well as the dialogue, progress notes and risk assessments, result in mental health services accumulating comparatively more information about each patient than would be recorded by physical health practitioners. The information age has helped to transform the way all patient data is collected and stored. As a result, debate and concernsRead MoreMoral Development And The Social Learning Theory Essay1466 Words   |  6 Pagesactions and good from bad behaviour. Albert Bandura believed in the social learning theory and that morality is developed by the individual through observation and imitation. The social learning theory is the perspective that suggests people learn within a social context. The concept is that when there is a stimulus there is a response in accordance to the stimuli. (Bandura, 1965) This is Referred to as â€Å"monkey see, monkey do.† Bandura’s work is based on the concept all behaviour is learned and so theRead MoreThe Justice And Restorative Justice1621 Words   |  7 Pagesspecific crime (Roche 343). Restorative justice is the the ideal response for the majority of youth involved in criminal activity, as it’s a rehabilitative method that produces positive healing processes and outcomes, especially in comparison to retributive justice approaches. Martin Wright explains that restorative justice involves a fundamental change in the response a society has towards individuals who harm one another. Wright elaborates that this terminology shifts the meaning of crime, stressingRead MoreShould Drugs Be Legalized?2054 Words   |  9 Pageswhether drugs should be legalised has been ongoing for many decades. Legalisation and regulation of some illicit drugs are now on the agenda. Statistics have shown that in 2014-2015, around 1 in 12 (8.6%) adults aged 16 to 59 had taken an illicit drug (Home Office, 2015). Illicit drug use is said to be rising in the UK. Research was conducted by the Observer whereby they found that in 2008, 27% of the population had taken illegal drugs. However, this figure has now increased to 31% (Mann, 2014).Read MoreSex Offenders And Sexual Offenders Essay1420 Words   |  6 PagesNew Zealand (Nadesu, 2011). In 2005, there were 703 in total apprehensions of sexual assaults committed against children 16 years a nd under in New Zealand. Since then there has been a rise with total of 1029 apprehensions recorded in 2014 (New Zealand Family Violence Clearinghouse, 2015), thus may be a reason as to why there has been such interest around child sexual offenders in criminology. Furthermore, sexual offending tends to be seen as an attribute in an individual that is unchangeable, with

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Building Effective Teams Daniels and Daniels Free Essays

As part of determining the effectiveness of a team, the team’s performance needs to be carefully measured. However, measuring the performance of a traditional team, where all members work in the same place in a single location, is different from measuring the performance of that of a global-based team. There are many factors that need to be considered when it comes to these measurements. We will write a custom essay sample on Building Effective Teams Daniels and Daniels or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is important that the differences be considered in order to create a fair measurement of each member’s performance. Daniels and Daniels (1993, p.  46) said that â€Å"establishing a global system of measuring performance allows alignment of global stages in the company so that any given individual employee knows at any given point in time how his/her performance is contributing to the global business objectives and strategy. † Being a member of a global-based team, there are certain skills that management would desire for the member to have in order to work effectively with the team. These characteristics and skills need to be exhibited by the members and can be used to determine the performance of each member. The different skills are discussed briefly below. Diversity Tolerance Global-based teams would have members belonging to different races, different nationalities and culture. In short, the team is diversified when it comes to its members. For the members of this kind of team to work properly, each of them needs to understand the nature of the team and be willing to work with people from different countries. Teamwork Willingness As with any type of team, members should all be team players. Each team member should know how to cooperate and contribute to the success of the team in attaining its goals. Etiquette Work etiquette is very important especially in a team-based organization. Each member is expected to work with each other. Though the work ethics of each member may differ from the other, the general and standard rules should still be observed. Listening Skills This is a very important skill that any individual should possess, especially when working with teams. Listening to others means that you are respecting their views, thoughts and decisions. You may not totally agree with them but you are sending the message that you are welcoming the idea when you listen. This skill is also crucial for a team’s success. Stress Resistance Stress comes with any type of work. People get stressed due to pressure. But most of the people who are usually stressed are those that cannot manage their time wisely. It is important for a team and each member to have a good sense of time management in order to avoid getting stressed as it affects the performance and productivity of the whole team. Problem Solving and Conflict Handling One of the skills that a mature and experienced professional should have is the ability to handle most of the problems that may occur. Being able to make wise decisions to solve problems is desirable in any team structure. The diverse culture and nationalities of the members would also produce conflict more often than expected. Thus, it is important that each member of the team should be able to effectively handle these conflicts and come with resolutions that are amenable to everyone. To measure the performance of the team and its members in terms of the skills mentioned above, I would suggest having a balanced scorecard that encompasses all aspects of performance. The above skills are some of the competencies that each member should possess as an individual and would comprise 50% of the scorecard. The remaining 50% would be quantitative performance, i. e. adherence to the set metrics, and shareholder value. The first 50%, which are composed of the qualities described above, can be measured through peer feedback. Team members get to assess one another in terms of the above skills and rate each other accordingly. Of course, this is done anonymously. Feedback from other team members can really help in the assessment of each member’s performance in terms of the different qualities above. Other than peer feedback, managers and supervisors can also add their own observations of the member since there can be times that peer feedbacks become subjective. Another method of evaluating these skills, perhaps, is assessment through case study and defense. Members will be given a scenario, internal or external, that commonly happens in the business and the team and be asked to accomplish the goal described in the scenario. The scenario and the goal can be made to encompass all or most of the qualities stated above. Each member then submits a comprehensive answer and response to the case study. Managers can now evaluate each member’s capability based on the responses received. Each member will also be given the chance to defend his/her responses in a discussion with the supervisor. These performance measurement tools suggested may be presented to the upper management for approval. Perhaps, a sample feedback form and case assessment can be provided for the director to better appreciate the tools being suggested. Team and Individual Performance A team’s performance may be an indicating factor of how each member of the team works. Rewarding the team as a whole when a goal is accomplished is a good way to boost their confidence. However, each individual’s performance should also be rewarded accordingly. A team performing well as whole does not necessarily mean that every member is doing an exemplary job. If individual rewards are given to top performers, other members will also be motivated and be encouraged to work harder to also gain achievement and rewards. That would mean a much better performance that awaits the team. Analysis In my research for the above discussion on suggestions for performance measurement tools, I have come to realize that performance is not only measured in terms of what the member can do and how productive the member is. It is also important to assess different skills sets and competencies that relate to the way a member does the job and work with other people. Since in a global-based environment physical interaction may be very limited, the skills mentioned above would compensate for this and contribute to the overall success of the team. The skills mentioned above can actually be summarized into two major things: total respect for each other despite the differences and ability to work as a team with common goals. These things should be made known to the employees at the very start of building this kind of team. In fact, these skills should also be part of the qualifications in recruiting potential members of the team. With the skills mentioned above, there are some which are based on cultural differences such as diversity tolerance and conflict handling. These measurements can be better understood by the employees by explaining clearly to them the purpose of these measurement criteria. It should be made clear to them that the purpose of these criteria is only to ensure that the employees are working well with each other despite of the differences and are able to resolve on their own the different conflicts that may exist among different members. These measurement tools can also assure them that there will be no bias on rewarding individuals just because of their cultural background; assessments will be done in an objective manner. References Daniels, J. L. Daniels, C. N. (1993). Global Vision: Building New Models for the Corporation of the Future. USA: McGraw-Hill Professional. Mitchell, C. (2000). A Short Course in International Business Culture. Novato, CA: World Trade Press. How to cite Building Effective Teams Daniels and Daniels, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

Shallow Foundation free essay sample

Shallows foundations are used when surface soils are sufficiently strong and stiff to support the imposed loads; they are generally unsuitable in weak or highly compressible soils, such as poorly-compacted fill, peat, recent lacustrine and alluvial deposits, etc. Pad foundations Pad foundations are used to support an individual point load such as that due to a structural column. They may be circular, square or reactangular. They usually consist of a block or slab of uniform thickness, but they may be stepped or haunched if they are required to spread the load from a heavy column. Pad foundations are usually shallow, but deep pad foundations can also be used. Strip foundations Strip foundations are used to support a line of loads, either due to a load-bearing wall, or if a line of columns need supporting where column positions are so close that individual pad foundations would be inappropriate. The main area of strip foundation are buildings with heavy walls (brick, concrete, stone), and heavy floor slabs. We will write a custom essay sample on Shallow Foundation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Strip foundation is located on the perimeter exterior walls, and placed under the supporting inner walls of buildings or other areas with increased load. Also strip foundation is well-suited for homes, which is planned to create basement, garage or basement. Strip foundation is also suitable in the case of a possible slight deformation of the base. Typically, strip footing located below the level of soil freezing at 20 cm of sandy soil You can lay the strip foundation and higher levels of freezing, but not more than 60 cm from ground level. For deep-freezing and highly swelling soils usually strip foundation shall not apply. Process itself strip foundation construction is simple, on the other hand it requires a fairly high cost of materials and work on the construction of the foundation. There are criteria for the minimum thickness of the foundation, which can be used building a house. Thus, the minimum thickness of reinforced concrete strip foundation – 10 cm of concrete – 25 cm, rubble concrete foundation – 35 cm, well and laying of natural stone – 50 cm in the construction of strip foundation to be also take into account the permissible load on the soil under the foundation. For clay soils at a depth of 80 cm load should not exceed 2 kg/cm2. In addition to pouring the foundation concrete mixtures, often strip foundations erected using ready-made foundation blocks or bricks. This speeds up the process of building a foundation. It should also be noted that during the construction of strip foundation is an opportunity to save money raising the foundation to the full depth only during the construction of heavy structures. There is still the most reliable option strip foundation remains solid foundation, more time-consuming and requires prior creating formwork and reinforcement training design to increase strength strip foundation. And in this case, the valves must be connected to each other by welding. Raft foundations Raft foundations are used to spread the load from a structure over a large area, normally the entire area of the structure. They are used when column loads or other structural loads are close together and individual pad foundations would interact. A raft foundation normally consists of a concrete slab which extends over the entire loaded area. It may be stiffened by ribs or beams incorporated into the foundation. Raft foundations have the advantage of reducing differential settlements as the concrete slab resists differential movements between loading positions. They are often needed on soft or loose soils with low bearing capacity as they can spread the loads over a larger area. Deep foundations * Piles Deep foundations are those founding too deeply below the finished ground surface for their base bearing capacity to be affected by surface conditions, this is usually at depths gt;3 m below finished ground level. They include piles, piers and caissons or compensated foundations using deep basements and also deep pad or strip foundations. Deep foundations can be used to transfer the loading to a deeper, more competent strata at depth if unsuitable soils are present near the surface. Piles are relatively long, slender members that transmit foundation loads through soil strata of low bearing capacity to deeper soil or rock strata having a high bearing capacity. They are used when for economic, constructional or soil condition considerations it is desirable to transmit loads to strata beyond the practical reach of shallow foundations. In addition to supporting structures, piles are also used to anchor structures against uplift forces and to assist structures in resisting lateral and overturning forces. Piers are foundations for carrying a heavy structural load which is constructed insitu in a deep excavation. Caissons are a form of deep foundation which are constructed above ground level, then sunk to the required level by excavating or dredging material from within the caisson. Compensated foundations are deep foundations in which the relief of stress due to excavation is approximately balanced by the applied stress due to the foundation. The net stress applied is therefore very small. A compensated foundation normally comprises a deep basement. Types of pile Piles are often used because adequate bearing capacity can not be found at shallow enough depths to support the structural loads. It is important to understand that piles get support from both end bearing and skin friction. The proportion of carrying capacity generated by either end bearing or skin friction depends on the soil conditions. Piles can be used to support various different types of structural loads. End bearing piles End bearing piles are those which terminate in hard, relatively impenetrable material such as rock or very dense sand and gravel. They derive most of their carrying capacity from the resistance of the stratum at the toe of the pile. Friction piles Friction piles obtain a greater part of their carrying capacity by skin friction or adhesion. This tends to occur when piles do not reach an impenetrable stratum but are driven for some distance into a penetrable soil. Their carrying capacity is derived partly from end bearing and partly from skin friction between the embedded surface of the soil and the surrounding soil.